religions were never outlawed, religious property was confiscated, believers were harassed, and religion was ridiculed while atheism was propagated in schools. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments. A b Khrushchev, Nikita (2007). This changed however, from Brezhnev's accession and Mikhail Gorbachev 's tenure as leader, the Soviet health care system was heavily criticized for many basic faults, such as the quality of service and the unevenness in its provision. Beginning in October 1918, the Lenin's government liberalized divorce and abortion laws, decriminalized homosexuality, permitted cohabitation, and ushered in a host of reforms. By 1940, as many as 90 percent of the churches, synagogues, and mosques that had been operating in 1917 were closed. Communism: A History (2003) Service, Robert. 159 The ussr, in theory, would have continued to have an economic growth rate.5 percent during the 1990s because of Soviet energy fields. The same year, a Soviet Constitution was approved, legitimizing the December 1922 union. Soviet military force was used to suppress anti-Stalinist uprisings in Hungary and Poland in 1956. Deffeyes argued in Beyond Oil that the Reagan administration encouraged Saudi Arabia to lower the price of oil to the point where the Soviets could not make a profit selling their oil, so the ussr's hard currency reserves became depleted. A History of Twentieth-Century Russia. 172 By the late 1970s and early 1980s, Soviet economists were calling for the construction of more roads to alleviate some of the burden from the railways and to improve the Soviet government budget. The Battle of Stalingrad, which lasted from late 1942 to early 1943, dealt a severe blow to the Germans from which they never fully recovered and became a turning point in the war.