A Concise History of the Catholic Church. In the middle of the third century. The Catholic Church teaches that it is the. However, in recent years Eastern Catholic Churches have returned to traditional Eastern practices in accord with the Vatican II decree Orientalium Ecclesiarum. The couple must foster trust and honesty as well as spiritual and physical intimacy. 320 Several eastern churches reunited, forming the majority of the Eastern Catholic Churches. 280 Some scholars state Peter was the first Bishop of Rome. Sexleketøy for å gjøre japanese ekte kjærlighet dukke Homo norske nakne gutter sex vedio. 326 His theses protested key points of Catholic doctrine as well as the sale of indulgences, and along with the Leipzig Debate this led to his excommunication in 1521. During the period of the Seven Ecumenical Councils, five primary sees emerged, an arrangement formalised in the mid-6th century by Emperor Justinian I as the pentarchy of Rome, Constantinople, Antioch, Jerusalem and Alexandria. 81 82 It teaches that revelation has one common source, God, and two distinct modes of transmission: Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition, 83 84 and that these are authentically interpreted by the Magisterium. In the 1960s, the Second Vatican Council led to reforms of the church's liturgy and practices, described as "opening the windows" by defenders, but criticised by traditionalist Catholics. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 252 According to Roman Catholic Womanpriests: "The principal consecrating Roman Catholic male bishop who ordained our first women bishops is a bishop with apostolic succession within the Roman Catholic Church in full communion with the pope." 267 Joyce, George (1913). 390 Pope Francis' installation was attended by Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople of the Eastern Orthodox Church, 391 the first time since the Great Schism of 1054 that the Eastern Orthodox Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople has attended a papal installation. 325 Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation Main articles: Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation In 1415, Jan Hus was burned at the stake for heresy, but his reform efforts encouraged Martin Luther, an Augustinian monk in Germany, who sent his Ninety-Five Theses to several bishops in 1517. 218 Social and cultural issues See also: Criticism of the Catholic Church Catholic social teaching Main article: Catholic social teaching Catholic social teaching, reflecting the concern Jesus showed for the impoverished, places a heavy emphasis on the corporal. These are in turn interpreted by the Magisterium (from magister, Latin for "teacher the church's teaching authority, which is exercised by the pope and the College of Bishops in union with the pope, the bishop of Rome.